PostgreSQL Ubuntu

How to Install and Set Up PostgreSQL Database on Ubuntu 20.04

PostgreSQL is one of the most famous open-source, freely available database management software systems out there. This system is quick, reliable, flexible, easy to use, and contains advanced features that allow complex applications to be built in a fault-tolerable workspace. There are two different packages of PostgreSQL, each intended for a specific purpose. The PostgreSQL Client package works on the client side to connect to servers, while the PostgreSQL Server package allows your system to set up and host your own databases. This tutorial will show you how to install these two packages and how to set up the PostgreSQL server in a few easy steps.

How to Install PostgreSQL Client DBMS on Ubuntu

The PostgreSQL client allows you to run the PostgreSQL shell command to remotely connect to PostgreSQL server databases.

Step 1: Update APT

As you should always do when installing a new system, first update and upgrade your APT.

$ sudo apt update

$ sudo apt upgrade

Step 2: Download and Install PostgreSQL Client

After updating your APT, download and install PostgreSQL Client with the following terminal command.

$ sudo apt install postgresql-client.

Step 3: Connect to PostgreSQL

You can connect to a remote PostgreSQL server using the psql command. You will have to provide the correct host or server IP address of the remote server. You will also have to provide the correct credentials to gain access to the server. Use the command below to connect to the server.

$ psql -h postgre-server -U postgre-user

How to Install PostgreSQL Server on Ubuntu

You can host one or many PostgreSQL databases on your own local machine with the help of the PostgreSQL server package.

Step 1: Update APT

As you should always do when installing a new system, first update and upgrade your APT.

$ sudo apt update

Step 2: Download and Install PostgreSQL Server

Now download and install the PostgreSQL server package via the command.

$ sudo apt install postgresql

Step 3: Check Port Used by PostgreSQL

After the installation is completed, you can listen to the port used by the PostgreSQL through default port 5432. Check this by giving the following command.

$ ss -nlt

Step 4: Change Startup Settings

You can also change startup settings of the PostgreSQL Server after system boot-up through the systemctl commands.

$ sudo systemctl enable postgresql

$ sudo systemctl disable postgresql

Step 5: Access PostgreSQL Server

When PostgreSQL Server installs, it is accessible from a local machine only and uses the loopback IP address of your machine. You may change this setting in the PostgreSQL configuration file to allow remote access. Enter the following command to open the PostgreSQL configuration file in gedit or any other text editor.

$ sudo gedit /etc/postgresql/12/main/postgresql.conf

Figure: PostgreSQL configuration file opened in a gedit editor.

Change the following line under the “CONNECTIONS AND AUTHENTICATIONS” section. This command will make PostgreSQL listen to all incoming traffic through the port. Next, save the file and close it.

listen_addresses = ‘*’

Figure: Listen code pasted under CONNECTION AND AUTHENTICATIONS area.

Step 6: Restart PostgreSQL

You will need to restart PostgreSQL service to take effect of all the changes to do that execute the following command in your terminal window.

$ sudo systemctl restart postgresql

Step 7: Check PostgreSQL Port Usage

You can check the PostgreSQL port usage and IP address by using the listening command.

$ ss -nlt

Step 8: Allow Incoming Client to Connect

You should add the following line to another configuration file that will allow an incoming client to connect your databases and users. The MD5 option in this command is used to apply the authentication password to all the connecting users.

$ sudo gedit /etc/postgresql/12/main/pg_hba.conf
Line = host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5

Figure: Adding line to pg_hba configuration file with gedit editor.

Step 9: Adjust Firewall Settings

You should make sure that the firewall does not stop incoming connections through the PostgreSQL port 5432. To do this, input the following command in the terminal window.

$ sudo ufw allow from any to any port 5432 proto tcp

Conclusion

This article covered how to install the PostgreSQL Client package, how to install the PostgreSQL Server package, and how to set up a PostgreSQL database. After reading this article, you should also know how to grant access to other accounts for remote access to the server or to a database.

About the author

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Younis Said

I am a freelancing software project developer, a software engineering graduate and a content writer. I love working with Linux and open-source software.