Java

What Is Spring Framework?

Spring is a Java-based application framework that can be used to create any type of application, such as stand-alone, web, or enterprise application. It was designed and created by Rod Johnson to deliver a refine and improved version of the JEE development architecture. The Rod was first released in June 2003 with the Apache 2.0 license.

The latest version of Spring is 5.3.19, released on April 13, 2022.

The core strength or the soul of this framework lies in the dependency injection. The dependency injection is a concept that allows injecting an object into another object to make the application or module loosely couple.

The Spring is full of features and provides a rich set of sub-projects, such as Spring Boot, Spring Security, Spring MVC, and Spring Cloud, to create the functional specific application.

Now, let’s create a web application. Then, you can use the Spring MVC module for web purposes. For security and authentication purposes, you can use the Spring Security. We will learn all these later in our articles.

Spring 5 Version

This latest version is announced to be built upon the Reactive Streams compatible with the Reactor Core. The Spring framework has improved with each release. In the initial days, we used the application servers to deploy the Java EE and Spring applications. And with the new Spring module “Spring Boot”, we can create applications with minimal effort with cloud and DevOps tools.

Spring 5.3.19 Updates:

  • To work in Spring, you must have a minimum Java version of Java 8 or higher
  • It has deprecated several old integrations such as Tiles, Guava, Velocity, and Portrait
  • Its Spring MVC module has been upgraded to use the Servlet API 4.0
  • It supports the Spring WebFlux, which is a new reactive programming framework

Spring Components

Spring framework consists of several built-in components to make a fully functional and productive framework.

Spring Core Container: This is the core component or the heart of the framework. It provides Spring containers, such as BeanFactory and ApplicationContext.

Aspect Oriented Programming: It is a programming paradigm/style that allows the creation of more modular components having cross-cutting concerns.

Authentication and Authorization: This component consists of several security tools and protocols that allow authenticating the users via Spring Security.

Convention over Configuration: Spring Roo component is a tool that provides convention over configuration for rapid application development in Spring.

Data Access: It makes working with databases by using the JDBC to connect with the relational, non-relational, and NoSQL databases.

Inversion of Control Container: This container manages the creation, accessing, and running of objects during application runtime. It is completely responsible for the bean life cycle and dependency injection.

Messaging: It helps to configure and manage the message passing in the application using the JMS (Java Message Service).

Model-View-Controller: It is a servlet-based component that allows creating web-based applications and RESTful web services in Spring.

Remote Access Framework: It is used for marshalling the Java objects over the network by using the protocols, such as RMI, RPC, CORBA, and SOAP.

Transaction Management: It helps to manage the transactions of the application.

Remote Management: It helps to manage the configuration of applications over local and remote by using the JMX (Java Management Extensions).

Testing: It helps to write the test cases for the application by using the Java Unit.

Spring Versions History

Let’s look in the following table to check all the spring versions to the latest with the corresponding years of release.

Version Date (Year)
0.9 Released in October 2002
1.0 Released in June 2003
2.0 Released in October 2006
3.0 Released in December 2009
4.0 Released in December 2013
5.0 Released in September 2017

Conclusion

Spring is an open-source framework. You can get its source from GitHub https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-framework. In other Linux Hint articles, we can learn about the Spring module and its architecture in detail.

About the author

Irfan Khan

I’m a software programmer having more than 5 years of development experience in Java and related technology. I love to write technical content as well and love to share the technical knowledge to make it available for all.