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Introduction to Oracle Database SQL and PL/SQL

Oracle Database is a relational database management system that aids in storing and managing huge volumes of data. However, the Oracle database supports SQL and PL/SQL languages for performing database management tasks. SQL is the most common query-based programming language used all around the world, whereas PL/SQL is an extension of SQL that can handle complex procedural programming concepts.

Let us enlist the topics below that will be covered in this blog:

Introduction to Oracle Database SQL

Oracle Database SQL (an acronym for Standard Query Language) is a powerful database access programming language. It is utilized to manage and manipulate Oracle relational databases. It aids in creating, modifying, and running queries on tables, views, and other database objects using SQL commands.

SQL commands comprise reserved words, such as “CREATE”, “VIEW”, “TRUNCATE” and “DROP” with a specific meaning. However, these statements are divided into categories given below:

  • Data Manipulation Language
  • Embedded SQL
  • Transaction Control
  • System Control
  • Data Definition Language
  • Session Control

Each of these categories of statements provides unique features and benefits while working with Oracle relational databases.

Features of Oracle Database SQL

Oracle Database SQL offers a variety of rich features, here we will enlist some of them:

  • It aids the DBAs to insert, update, delete, and query data in the database using commands, such as “SELECT” and “INSERT”.
  • It enforces data integrity, validity, consistency, and non-redundancy by defining constraints such as “PRIMARY KEY”, “FOREIGN KEY”, and “CHECK” constraints.
  • It also helps the database developers to create and modify tables, views, sequences, and other database objects using statements, such as “CREATE TABLE” and “DROP TABLE”.
  • It ensures data access by defining user roles, privileges, and permissions using statements, such as “GRANT”.
  • It also offers aggregate functions, such as “sum” and “average” as well as the ability to perform complex queries such as “JOIN” to join two or more tables for data analysis.
  • It comprises many built-in functions that help in storing and managing essential data, including date functions and mathematical functions.
  • It has indexing features that improve the performance of queries by creating indexes on columns used in queries for faster access to data.
  • It provides data security because of its features like user access control and backup.

Introduction to Oracle Database PL/SQL

Oracle Database PL/SQL (an acronym for Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is a programming language used to develop and manage complex Oracle Database applications. It is an extension to SQL language that contains additional procedural programming concepts, such as loops, exception handling, encapsulation, and conditionals. It also offers access to database objects such as tables.

Features of Oracle Database PL/SQL

Let us enlist some features offered by Oracle Database PL/SQL:

  • It improves performance and reduces the number of requests as it helps users to create and execute stored procedures and functions within the database.
  • It has features to catch and handle exceptions that may arise during the execution of the code to ensure reliability.
  • It provides control structure statements to control the flow of the program, such as loops, conditional statements, and case statements.
  • It offers a feature for data manipulation within the database by using SQL statements within your program.
  • It also allows developers to define reusable code modules called packages.

Oracle Database SQL and PL/SQL are utilized by developers and DBAs to manage and manipulate data within the Oracle Database. Moreover, they also aid in creating Oracle database applications and analyzing data and creating reports.


Oracle Database SQL and PL/SQL are programming languages that aid developers and DBAs in managing and manipulating data within the Oracle Database. SQL offers various features to create, modify, and manipulate database objects. On the other hand, PL/SQL is an extension to SQL with additional procedural programming concepts and offers features for handling exceptions and defining reusable code modules. This post has discussed Oracle Database SQL and PL/SQL

About the author

Nimrah Ch

I’m a technical writer with a Bachelor's in Software Engineering and Certification in Cyber Security. Through my research and writing, I strive to provide readers with in-depth, informative articles that can help them make informed decisions about their technological needs.