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How Does the Operating System Work?

Increasingly sophisticated technology has become a permanent part of our daily lives, making it easy to solve a variety of problems. Businesses of all sizes now prefer to use computer systems that enable them to manage their tasks efficiently. So, how does this type of operating system work? Taking this into consideration, why do companies rely on computers? Consider a few advantages of computers:

  • Manages employee data easily
  • Stores all previous data in memory
  • Easily creates a data back-up
  • Keeps sales information
  • Keeps customer information

What is Operating System?

Operating systems do more than meet your expectations, as they run virtually on any computer or hardware system and make it useful for your work. A computer’s operating system is one of the essential programs on all kinds of devices, from mobile phones to smart TVs, interfacing a computer user with the computer hardware that efficiently allows a user to communicate with the computer. Operating System is also a software that manages:

  • Memory
  • Processing
  • Hardware and software on the computer

Operating systems evolve with updates that:

  • Enhance security
  • Executing tasks
  • Stability

Because of this, it’s imperative to update to the latest operating system when it’s available.

How Does Operating System Work?

An operating system (OS) controls all of the computer’s software and hardware. Its responsibilities are file management, memory management, input/output handling, and peripheral device management.

Often, multiple computer programs are running simultaneously while accessing your computer’s central processing unit (CPU), memory, and storage. The operating system coordinates all of these to ensure that each program gets what it needs.

You can navigate the screen with the mouse, opening a music library or browser at the drop of a hat. The operating system is the real thing behind the curtain when you use your devices because a lot is going on inside.

A device’s operating system intends to organise and control hardware and software to behave in a predictable but flexible manner.

Functions of Operating System

An operating system has a lot of functions:

  • Process management
  • Memory management
  • File system
  • Input and output management

Process Management

It is designed to give the illusion that more processes are running simultaneously on the computer than processors installed. It is so fast to switch between multiple processes that the user thinks he is doing it concurrently.

Memory Management
When ordering from the operating system, users’ processes should have secure access to system memory. Virtual memory serves three purposes:

  • Assure that each process has a unique address space
  • Provide memory protection to prevent processes from using memory addresses
  • Allow an application to use more memory than what is physically available

Input & Output Management

A computer’s operating system allows us to easily add additional hardware and configure it. We can connect a printer, external hard disk, scanner, and USB drives to a computer.

File System

Operating systems handle files efficiently and transmit them as needed. The operating system provides essential functions for manipulating the file system objects that make up the file system.

Secondary Storage Management

For a program to run the data and its accesses, the data must be present in the main memory or the primary storage. A computer system must provide secondary storage to back up the main memory because the main memory is too small, and the data will be lost if the power goes out.

A program may need to exchange information with another program. A computer network can connect processes executing on different systems or processes running on the same computer. Sharing memory or messaging can be used to communicate.

Detecting Errors
Errors are constantly on the OS’s mind. CPU and memory hardware, I/O devices, and the user program can cause the error. Generally, A correct and consistent computing experience depends on a well-designed OS that correctly responds to each error type.

Resource Allocation
When multiple users have logged in or various jobs are running simultaneously, resources must be shared. Numerous routines schedule jobs, allocating plotters, modems, and other peripheral devices.

We need to know which users use which kinds of system resources. Accounting records are helpful, or simply usage statistics.

The owners of information stored in multiuser computer systems may want to control the use of that information. Multiple disjointed processes executing side-by-side shouldn’t interfere with one another or the operating system itself. Especially, protecting means making sure that all system resources remain under control.

Types of Operating System

Operating systems had evolved to accommodate more sophisticated tasks when the first operating system was built. OS serve as an intermediary between the user and the hardware component of a computer system and manages the system’s resources. We’ll examine the various Operating Systems. Let’s start.

Batch Operating System

Batch operating systems group has similar jobs into batches executed one by one by some operators. The way it works is as follows:

  • It doesn’t interact with the CPU directly
  • Operators in batch-type operating systems group jobs with similar requirements into batches
  • Operators sort jobs based on similar conditions

Time-Sharing Operating System

Time-sharing in multi-tasking operating systems allows more than one process to run simultaneously. In time-sharing, we determine a time- a time quantum. The performance will continue for the duration of the process, and then other methods will run for the same period. It will be executed again in the next cycle, but it will last only for that period before the next process is initiated. And so it goes. Time-sharing operating systems have the following benefits:

  • To make the system run smoothly, every task has its own time
  • It works as a single system, with each task sharing the CPU based on the time
  • Quantum is the amount of time each task takes to execute
  • After a certain period, the OS switches to a new task
  • It ensures that every task gets equal time for execution

Distributed Operating System

Distributed operating systems have several systems, each CPU, main memory, secondary memory, and resources. Those systems share a communication network. Each connection is an independent system that accepts user tasks. It is then distributed throughout the network to speed up the execution process. Distributed operating systems have the following benefits:

  • By dividing the task into portions, multiple systems can handle the workload.
  • Any failure of one system in the network does not affect the others.
  • Scalability is high. Resilience to load changes is high.

Real-Time Operating System

For real-time data, a real-time operating system is considered more sufficient. The process should begin as soon as the data arrives, with no buffer delays. A real-time operating system is based on clock interrupts. When you have many requests to process quickly, you should use Real-time Operating System. Real-time operating systems have the following benefits:

  • Utilize resources and devices to the fullest extent possible.
  • Almost no errors occur in systems.

Network Operating System
Among the critical types of operating systems is the network operating system. Generally, it runs on the system and allows it to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. It allows users to share files and printers between computers connected to a network, like a local area network, private network, or another network. Network operating systems have the following benefits:

  • When the server holds most of the data, it can reduce overhead costs on all the client devices.
  • System upgrading is a straightforward process.

Remote access to the servers makes working with them more manageable.

Classification of Operating System

Operating systems allow another program to communicate with hardware and run on the computer. It contains the system software or the fundamental files your computer needs to run and boot. Furthermore, Operating systems provide basic functionality to desktop computers, tablets, and smartphones.

Multi-user OS
An OS that supports multiple users allows users to use the same system simultaneously on multiple I/O terminals or over the network. For example, Windows, Linux, and Mac.

Multiprocessing OS
Many processes can run simultaneously in a multiprocessing operating system. More than one CPU is used. The processing speed will be faster, but the cost will be high. Implementation is complex. Multiprocessing is supported by Unix, 64-bit Windows, and server editions of Windows.

Multi-programming OS
Multiprogramming refers to the ability to run more than one program simultaneously. However, Multiprocessing may or may not be involved. By dividing the CPU into small-time slices, multiple programs are executed one after another in a single processor system.

Multi-tasking OS
Multiple tasks can be run simultaneously in a multitasking system but are performed one after another through time-sharing on a single CPU. Multitasking OS are of two types:

  • Pre-imperative multitasking
  • Co-operative multitasking

Processes can be divided into threads that run on a multi-threading OS. For describing running programs, we use the terms processes and threads. However, this increases complexity.

Batch Processing
Batch processing involves a collection of system components in which all the necessary inputs are available at the beginning of the process.

Online Processing
A system of individual processing is one in which each task is handled individually once the user has provided it.

About the author

Shubham Vora