Linux Commands

Brute force against SSH and FTP services

Bruteforce is among the oldest hacking techniques, it is also one of the simplest automated attacks requiring minimum knowledge and intervention by the attacker. The attack consists in multiple login attempts using a database of possible usernames and passwords until matching. This attack can be prevented by forbidding users more than X number of attempts per minute.  Usually when carrying out this attack the attacker already knows the username, in this tutorial we’ll assume we know the username, we’ll crack a root password using different tools.The installation process of this tutorial is useful for Debian/Ubuntu based Linux distributions, the rest of the article is useful for most distributions.

Getting the proper dictionary

There are different wordlists or dictionaries, optimized according to the target type. If you want to crack a router password to access wifi you’ll use dictionaries containing a minimum of 8 characters, if you want to crack a ssh service, then you’ll use a username’s database containing the user “root“.

Here you have some websites from which you can download wordlists.

The best is to use the most versatile search way as depicted in the following animation.

Installing and using Hydra to crack ssh and ftp credentials

Hydra is one of the most popular bruteforcing tools. It comes by default with Kali and is supported by Debian/Ubuntu default repositories. To install Hydra run:

apt install hydra –y

Now lets attack the SSH service of a target  to access as root by running the following command:

hydra -l root -P Path/to/dictionary/wordlist.txt X.X.X.X ssh

Where: hydra calls the software.

-l: specifies the login username

-P: specifies the dictionary or wordlist location.

X.X.X.X: represents the IP address,replace it for your target’s IP.

ssh: specifies the service to attack.

Note: Optionally you can use the -U parameter to define a usernames list too.

As you can see in the screenshoot, hydra found the password within the wordlist.

If we want to crack a ftp service we can do the same replacing the last parameter ssh for ftp:

hydra -l root -P Path/to/dictionary/wordlist.txt X.X.X.X ssh

Installing and cracking credentials with Medusa

To install Medusa type:

apt install medusa -y

Now lets hack a SSH service by using Medusa, execute the following command:

medusa -u USERNAME -P '/PATH/TO/WORDLIST.TXT' -h X.X.X.X -M ssh

medusa: calls the software

-u: specifies  username

-P: specifies path to wordlist or dictionary.

-h: specifies the hostname or IP

-M specifies the service.

As you can see in the screenshot Medusa managed to find the password within the dictionary, by replacing the ssh specifition for other port we can target different services.

Getting protected against Bruteforce attacks

By default Linux default installations come fully accessible to grant us the first access, among the best practices to prevent brute force attacks are disabling root remote access, limiting the number of login attempts per X seconds, installing additional software like fail2ban.

1. Disabling remote access as root.

Type the following command to edit the sshd configuration file to disable remote root access.

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Find the line containing PermitRootLogin yes and edit it to PermitRootLogin no

Press ctrl+w and search for “root

Press ctrl+x to save and quit nano.

Now try to ssh yourself and see the result:

ssh root@localhost or ssh@

Try as a regular user and you’ll manage to login.

2. Replacing password authentication for keys.

nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Press ctrl+w and search for PasswordAuthentication yes and edit replacing the line for  PasswordAuthentication no.

Press ctrl+x to save and exit.

3. Installing Fail2ban

To install Fail2ban run:

apt install fail2ban -y

4. Limiting login attempts using iptables

Add the following iptables rules:

Iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
Iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

Then type

Iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 21,22,110,143 -m recent --update
--seconds 3600 --name BANNED --rsource -j DROP

Press iptables-save > /etc/iptables/rules.v4 to save and restart the service.

service iptables restart

for more information on iptables visit


Carrying out brute force attacks does not require advanced knowledge on security, with few commands and strong hardware we can break passwords fast by letting run software attempting massive logins in short time. Defending ourselves against such attacks is very easy, does not require sysadmin level knowledge, and varied options are available, doing it is a basic must to keep your device safe.

I hope you found this basic tutorial on offensive and defensive brute force useful. Keep visiting LinuxHint for more tips on Linux Security and Administration.

About the author

David Adams

David Adams is a System Admin and writer that is focused on open source technologies, security software, and computer systems.